Publications

Find below a collection of publications (reports, scientific articles, etc.) about the 4C/ID model.

Reports


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The Four-Component Instructional Design Model: An Overview of its Main Design Principles (2019)

Jeroen J.G. van Merriënboer

This report gives a concise description of the main characteristics of the 4C/ID model. It describes the four components from which competence based education is built and briefly explains how an integrated curriculum based on the four components helps to reach transfer of learning. It then describes the systematic 4C/ID design process, with a focus on the main instructional design principles that are prescribed by the model, before ending with a short discussion positioning the 4C/ID model in the field of educational sciences.

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Scientific publications

Essential reading related to 4C/ID by year.

2021

  • Costa, J.M., Miranda, G.L. & Melo, M. (2021) Four-component instructional design (4C/ID) model: a meta-analysis on use and effect. Learning Environments Research. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10984-021-09373-y
  • Frerejean, J., Van Geel, M., Keuning, T., Dolmans, D., Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., & Visscher, A (2021). Ten steps to 4C/ID: training differentiation skills in a professional development program for teachers. Instructional Science. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11251-021-09540-x

2020

  • Paas, F., & van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2020). Cognitive-load theory: Methods to manage working memory load in the learning of complex tasks. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 29(4), 394–398. https://doi.org/10.1177/0963721420922183
  • Stefaniak, J., & Xu, M. (2020). An examination of the systemic reach of instructional design models: A systematic review. TechTrends, 64(5), 710–719. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11528-020-00539-8

2019

  • Beckers, J., Dolmans, D. H. J. M., & van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2019). Perflect: Design and evaluation of an electronic development portfolio aimed at supporting self-directed learning. TechTrends, 63(4), 420–427. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11528-018-0354-x
  • Frerejean, J., van Merriënboer, J. J. G., Kirschner, P. A., Roex, A., Aertgeerts, B., & Marcellis, M. (2019). Designing instruction for complex learning: 4C/ID in higher education. European Journal of Education, 54, 513-524. https://doi.org/10.1111/ejed.12363
  • Güney, Z. (2019). A sample design in programming with four-component instructional design (4c/id) model. Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Technology, 7(4), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.17220/mojet.2019.04.001
  • Rovers, S. F. E., Clarebout, G., Savelberg, H. H. C. M., de Bruin, A. B. H., & van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2019). Granularity matters: Comparing different ways of measuring self-regulated learning. Metacognition and Learning, 14(1), 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11409-019-09188-6
  • Sweller, J., van Merriënboer, J. J. G., & Paas, F. (2019). Cognitive architecture and instructional design: 20 years later. Educational Psychology Review, 31(2), 261–292. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-019-09465-5

2018

  • Daniel, M., Stojan, J., Wolff, M., Taqui, B., Glasgow, T., Forster, S., & Cassese, T. (2018). Applying four-component instructional design to develop a case presentation curriculum. Perspectives on Medical Education, 7(4), 276–280. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40037-018-0443-8
  • Marcellis, M., Barendsen, E., & van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2018). Designing a blended course in android app development using 4C/ID. In Proceedings of the 18th Koli Calling International Conference on Computing Education Research (Koli
    Calling ’18) (pp. 1–5). Koli, Finland: ACM Press. https://doi.org/10.1145/3279720.3279739
  • Pontes, T., Miranda, G., & Celani, G. (2018). Algorithm-aided design with python: Analysis of technological competence of subjects. Education Sciences, 8(4), 200. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci8040200
  • Raaijmakers, S. F., Baars, M., Schaap, L., Paas, F., van Merriënboer, J., & van Gog, T. (2018). Training self-regulated learning skills with video modeling examples: Do task-selection skills transfer? Instructional Science, 46(2), 273–290. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11251-017-9434-0
  • Van Meeuwen, L. W., Brand-Gruwel, S., Kirschner, P. A., de Bock, J. J. P. R., & van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2018). Fostering self-regulation in training complex cognitive tasks. Educational Technology Research and Development, 66(1), 53–73. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11423-017-9539-9
  • Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., Gros, B., & Niegemann, H. (2018). Instructional design in Europe: Trends and issues. In R. A. Reiser & J. V. Dempsey (Eds.), Trends and issues in instructional design and technology (4th ed., pp. 192–198). New York, NY: Pearson Education.

2017

  • De Bruin, A. B. H., & van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2017). Bridging cognitive load and self-regulated learning research: A complementary approach to contemporary issues in educational research. Learning and Instruction, 51, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2017.06.001
  • Francom, G. M. (2017). Principles for task-centered instruction. In C. M. Reigeluth, B. J. Beatty, & R. D. Myers (Eds.), Instructional design theories and models:The learner-centered paradigm of education (Vol. 4, pp. 65–91). New York: Routledge.
  • Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., McKenney, S., Cullinan, D., & Heuer, J. (2017). Aligning pedagogy with physical learning spaces. European Journal of Education, 52(3), 253–267. https://doi.org/10.1111/ejed.12225

2016

  • Beckers, J., Dolmans, D., & Van Merriënboer, J. (2016). E-portfolios enhancing students’ self-directed learning: A systematic review of influencing factors. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology. https://doi.org/10.14742/ajet.2528
  • Frerejean, J., van Strien, J. L. H., Kirschner, P.A., & Brand-Gruwel, S. (2016). Completion strategy or emphasis manipulation? Task support for teaching information problem solving. Computers in Human Behavior, 62, 90–104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.03.048
  • Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2016). How people learn. In N. Rushby & D. W. Surry (Eds.), The Wiley handbook of learning technology (pp. 15–34). Chichester, UK: Wiley Blackwell.

2015

  • Maggio, L. A., Ten Cate, O., Irby, D. M., & O’Brien, B. C. (2015). Designing evidence- based medicine training to optimize the transfer of skills from the classroom to clinical practice: Applying the four component instructional design model.Academic Medicine, 90, 1457–1461. https://doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0000000000000769
  • Melo, M., & Miranda, G. L. (2015). Learning electrical circuits: The effects of the 4C-ID instructional approach in the acquisition and transfer of knowledge. Journal of Information Technology Education: Research, 14, 313–337. https://doi.org/10.28945/2281
  • Postma, T. C., & White, J. G. (2015). Developing clinical reasoning in the classroom—analysis of the 4C/ID-model. European Journal of Dental Education, 9, 74–80. https://doi.org/10.1111/eje.12105
  • Taminiau, E. M. C., Kester, L., Corbalan, G., Spector, J. M., Kirschner, P. A., & van Mer- riënboer, J. J. G. (2015). Designing on-demand education for simultaneous development of domain-specific and self-directed learning skills. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 31, 405–421. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcal.12076
  • Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., & Dolmans, D. H. J. M. (2015). Research on instructional design in the health sciences: From taxonomies of learning to whole-task models. In J. Cleland & S. J. Durning (Eds.), Researching medical education (pp. 193–206). Chichester, UK:Wiley Blackwell.
  • Vandewaetere, M., Manhaeve, D., Aertgeerts, B., Clarebout, G., van Merriënboer, J. J. G., & Roex, A. (2015). 4C/ID in medical education: How to design an educational program based on whole-task learning: AMEE Guide No. 93. Medical Teacher, 37, 4–20. https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159X.2014.928407
  • Wopereis, I. G. J. H., Frerejean, J., & Brand-Gruwel, S. A. B. (2015). Information problem
    solving instruction in higher education: A case study on instructional design. Communications in Computer and Information Sciences, 552, 293–302. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28197-1_30

2014

  • Choi, H. H., van Merriënboer, J. J. G., & Paas, F. (2014). Effects of the physical environment on cognitive load and learning: Towards a new model of cognitive load. Educational Psychology Review, 26, 225–244. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-014-9262-6
  • Claramita, M., & Susilo, A. P. (2014). Improving communication skills in the Southeast Asian health care context. Perspectives on Medical Education, 3(6), 474–479. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40037-014-0121-4
  • Francom, G. M., & Gardner, J. (2014). What is task-centered learning? TechTrends, 58, 28–36. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11528-014-0784-z
  • Könings, K. D., Seidel, T., & van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2014). Participatory design of learning environments: Integrating perspectives of students, teachers, and designers. Instructional Science, 42, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11251-013-9305-2
  • Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., & de Bruin, A. B. H. (2014). Research paradigms and perspectives on learning. In J. M. Spector, M. D. Merrill, J. Elen, & M. J. Bishop (Eds.), Hand- book of research on educational communications and technology (4th ed., pp. 21–30). New York:Springer.
  • Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., & Kester, L. (2014).The four-component instructional design model: Multimedia principles in environments for complex learning. In R. E. Mayer (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of multimedia learning (2nd rev. ed., pp. 104–148). Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
  • Young, J. Q., Van Merrienboer, J., Durning, S., & Ten Cate, O. (2014). Cognitive load theory: Implications for medical education: AMEE Guide no. 86. Medical Teacher, 36(5), 371–384. https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159X.2014.889290

2013

  • Dolmans, D. H. J. M., Wolfhagen, I. H. A. P., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G.(2013). Twelve tips for implementing whole-task curricula: How to make it work? Medical Teacher, 35, 801–805. https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159X.2013.799640
  • Kirschner, P. A., & van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2013). Do learners really know best? Urban legends in education. Educational Psychologist, 48(3), 169–183. https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520.2013.804395
  • Susilo, A. P., van Merriënboer, J. J. G., van Dalen, J., Claramita, M., & Scherpbier, A. (2013). From lecture to learning tasks: Use of the 4C/ID model in a communication skills course in a continuing professional education context. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 44, 278–284. https://doi.org/10.3928/00220124‐20130501‐78
  • Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2013). Perspectives on problem solving and instruction. Computers & Education, 64, 153–160. https://doi.org/10.10-16/j.compedu.2012.11.025

2012

  • Holtslander, L. F., Racine, L., Furniss, S., Burles, M., & Turner, H. (2012). Developing and piloting an online graduate nursing course focused on experiential learning of qualitative research methods. Journal of Nursing Education, 51(6), 345–348. https://doi.org/10.3928/01484834-20120427-03
  • Kester, L., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012). Cognitive tasks and learning. In N. Seel (Ed.), Ency- clopedia of the sciences of learning (pp. 619–622). New York: Springer.
  • Kostons, D., van Gog, T., & Paas, F. (2012). Training self-assessment and task-selection skills: A cognitive approach to improving self-regulated learning. Learning and Instruction, 22, 121–132. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2011.08.004
  • Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2012). Variability of practice. In N. M. Seel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning (pp. 3389–3390). https://doi.org/10.10-07/978-1-4419-1428-6_415
  • Tjiam, I. M., Schout, B. M. A., Hendrikx, A. J. M., Scherpbier, A. J. J. M., Witjes, J. A., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2012). Designing simulator-based training: An approach integrating cognitive task analysis and four-component instructional design. Medical Teacher, 34(10), e698–e707. https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159X.2012.687480
  • Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., & van der Vleuten, C. P. (2012). Technology-based assessment in the integrated curriculum. In M. C. Mayrath, J. Clarke-Midura, D. H. Robinson, & G. Schraw (Eds.), Technology-based assessments for 21st century skills (pp. 345–370). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.

2011

  • Corbalan, G., Kester, L., & van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2011). Learner-controlled selection of tasks with different surface and structural features: Effects on transfer and efficiency. Computers in Human Behavior, 27, 76–81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2010.05.026

2010

  • Paas, F., van Gog,T., & Sweller, J. (Eds.). (2010). Cognitive load theory: New conceptualizations, specifications, and integrated research perspectives. Educational Psychology Review, 22, 115–121. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-010-9133-8
  • Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., & Sweller, J. (2010). Cognitive load theory in health professional education: Design principles and strategies. Medical Education, 44(1), 85–93. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2009.03498.x

2009

  • Corbalan, G., Kester, L., & van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2009). Dynamic task selection: Effects of feedback and learner control on efficiency and motivation. Learning and Instruction, 19, 455–465. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2008.07.002
  • Corbalan, G., Kester, L., & van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2009). Combining shared control with variability over surface features: Effects on transfer test performance and task involvement. Computers in Human Behavior, 25, 290–298. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2008.12.009
  • Kalyuga, S. (2009). Knowledge elaboration: A cognitive load perspective. Learning and Instruction, 19, 402–410. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2009.02.003
  • Kicken, W., Brand-Gruwel, S., van Merriënboer, J. J. G., & Slot, W. (2009). Design and evaluation of a development portfolio: How to improve students’ self-directed learning skills. Instructional Science, 37, 453–473. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11251-008-9058-5
  • Kicken, W., Brand-Gruwel, S., van Merriënboer, J. J. G., & Slot, W. (2009). The effects of portfolio-based advice on the development of self-directed learning skills in secondary vocational education. Educational Technology Research and Development, 57, 439–460. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11423-009-9111-3
  • Kirschner, P. A. (2009). Epistemology or pedagogy, that is the question. In S. Tobias & T. M. Duffy (Eds.), Constructivist instruction: Success or failure? (pp. 144–157). New York: Routledge.
  • Kirschner, F., Paas, F., & Kirschner, P. A. (2009). Individual and group-based learning from complex cognitive tasks: Effects on retention and transfer efficiency. Computers in Human Behavior, 25, 306–314. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2008.12.008
  • Lim, J., Reiser, R.A., & Olina, Z. (2009). The effects of part-task and whole-task instructional approaches on acquisition and transfer of a complex cognitive skill. Educational Technology Research and Development, 57, 61–77. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11423-007-9085-y
  • Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., & Sluijsmans, D. M. A. (2009). Toward a synthesis of cognitive load theory, four-component instructional design, and self-directed learning. Educational Psychology Review, 21, 55–66. https://doi.org/10.10-07/s10648-008-9092-5

2008

  • Corbalan, G., Kester, L., & van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2008). Selecting learning tasks: Effects of adaptation and shared control on efficiency and task involvement. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33, 733–756. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2008.02.003
  • Kicken,W., Brand-Gruwel, S., & van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2008). Scaffolding advice on task selection: A safe path toward self-directed learning in on-demand education. Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 60, 223–239. https://doi.org/10.1080/13636820802305561
  • Van Gog, T., Paas, F., & van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2008). Effects of studying sequences of process-oriented and product-oriented worked examples on troubleshooting transfer efficiency. Learning and Instruction, 18, 211–222. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2007.03.003
  • Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., & Kester, L. (2008). Whole-task models in education. In J. M. Spector, M. D. Merrill, J. J. G. van Merriënboer, & M. P. Driscoll (Eds.), Handbook of research on educational communications and technology (3rd ed, pp. 441–456). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum/Routledge.

2007

  • De Croock, M. B. M., & van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2007). Paradoxical effects of information presentation formats and contextual interference on transfer of a complex cognitive skill. Computers in Human Behavior, 23, 1740–1761. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2005.10.003
  • Sarfo, F. K., & Elen, J. (2007). Developing technical expertise in secondary technical schools: The effect of 4C/ID learning
    environments. Learning Environments Research, 10, 207–221. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10984‐007‐9031‐2

2006

  • Janssen-Noordman, A. M. B., Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., van der Vleuten, C. P. M., & Scherpbier, A. J. J. A. (2006). Design of integrated practice for learning professional competences. Medical Teacher, 28, 447–452. https://doi.org/10.1080/01421590600825276
  • Kester, L., Kirschner, P. A., & van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2006). Just-in-time information presentation: Improving learning a troubleshooting skill. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 31, 167–185. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2005.04.002
  • Kirschner, P. A., Sweller, J., & Clark, R. E. (2006). Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work: An analysis of the failure of constructivist, discovery, problem-based, experiential, and inquiry-based teaching. Educational Psychologist, 46(2), 75–86. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326985ep4102_1
  • Nadolski, R. J., Kirschner, P. A., & van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2006). Process support in learning tasks for acquiring complex cognitive skills in the domain of law. Learning and Instruction, 16, 266– 278. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2006.03.004
  • Salden, R. J. C. M., Paas, F., & van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2006). Personalised adaptive task selection in air traffic control: Effects on training efficiency and transfer. Learning and Instruction, 16, 350–362. https://doi.org/10.-1016/j.learninstruc.2006.07.007
  • Salden, R. J. C. M., Paas, F., van der Pal, J., & van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2006). Dynamic task selection in flight management system training. International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 16, 157–174. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327108ijap1602_3
  • Salden, R. J. C. M., Paas, F., & van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2006). A comparison of approaches to learning task selection in the training of complex cognitive skills. Computers in Human Behavior, 22, 321–333. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2004.06.003
  • Van Gog, T., Paas, F., & van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2006). Effects of process-oriented worked examples on troubleshooting transfer performance. Learning and Instruction, 16, 154–164. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2006.02.003
  • Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., Kester, L., & Paas, F. (2006). Teaching complex rather than simple tasks: Balancing intrinsic and germane load to enhance transfer of learning. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 20, 343–352. https://doi.org/10.1002/acp.1250

2005

  • Kester, L., Kirschner, P.A., & van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2005). The management of cognitive load during complex cognitive skill acquisition by means of computer-simulated problem solving. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 75, 71–85. https://doi.org/10.1348/000709904X19254
  • Nadolski, R. J., Kirschner, P. A., van Merriënboer, J. J. G., & Wöretshofer, J. (2005). Devel- opment of an instrument for measuring the complexity of learning tasks. Educational Research & Evaluation, 11, 1–27. https://doi.org/10.1080/13803610500110125
  • Van Gog, T., Ericsson, K. A., Rikers, R. M. J. P., & Paas, F. (2005). Instructional design for advanced learners: Establishing connections between the theoretical frameworks of cognitive load and deliberate practice. Educational Technology Research and Development,
    53, 73–81. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02504799
  • Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., & Sweller, J. (2005). Cognitive load theory and complex learning: Recent developments and future directions. Educational Psychology Review, 17, 147–177. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-005-3951-0
  • Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., & Sweller, J. (2005). Cognitive load theory and complex learn- ing: Recent developments and future directions. Educational Psychology Review, 17, 147–177. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-005-3951-0

2004

  • Kester, L., Kirschner, P. A., & van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2004). Information presentation and troubleshooting in electrical circuits. International Journal of Science Education, 26, 239–256. https://doi.org/10.1080/69032000072809

2003

  • Kalyuga, S., Ayres, P., Chandler, P., & Sweller, J. (2003). The expertise reversal effect. Educational Psychologist, 38(1), 23–31. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15326985EP3801_4
  • Renkl, A., & Atkinson, R. K. (2003). Structuring the transition from example study to problem solving in cognitive skill acquisition: A cognitive load perspective. Educational Psychologist, 38, 15–22. https://doi.org/10.1207/S1532-6985EP3801_3
  • Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., Kirschner, P. A., & Kester, L. (2003). Taking the load off a learner’s mind: Instructional design for complex learning. Educational Psychologist 38, 5–13. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326985e-p3801_2

2002

  • Renkl, A. (2002). Worked-out examples: Instructional explanations support learning by self-explanations. Learning and Instruction, 12, 529–556. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0959-4752(01)00030-5
  • Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., Clark, R. E., & de Croock, M. B. M. (2002). Blueprints for complex learning: The 4C/ID-model. Educational Technology Research and Development, 50, 39–61. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02504993

2001

  • Hoogveld, A. W. M., Paas, F., Jochems, W. M. G., & van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2001). The effects of a Web-based training in an instructional systems design approach on teachers’ instructional design behavior. Computers in Human Behavior, 17(4), 363–371. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0747-5632(01)00013-9
  • Kester, L., Kirschner, P. A., van Merriënboer, J. J. G., & Baumer, A. (2001). Just-in-time information presentation and the acquisition of complex cognitive skills. Computers in Human Behavior, 17, 373–392. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0747-5632(01)00011-5

1997

  • Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., de Croock, M. B. M., & Jelsma, O. (1997). The transfer paradox: Effects of contextual interference on retention and transfer performance of a complex cognitive skill. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 84, 784–786. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.1997.84.3.784

1994

  • Paas, F., & van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (1994). Variability of worked examples and transfer of geometrical problem-solving skills: A cognitive-load approach. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86, 122–133. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.86.1.122

1992

  • Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., Jelsma, O., & Paas, F. G. W. C. (1992). Training for reflective expertise: A four-component instructional design model for complex cognitive skills. Educational Technology Research and Development, 40(2), 23–43. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02297047